Wednesday, 13 April 2016

On This Day 13th April

Hello everyone,
From Popes, to Kings, the Pony Express to the Royal Air Force and everything inbetween, enjoy today's edition of 'On This Day'

Regards,

Richard Mills

HISTORY

1055- A new Pope is appointed, Bishop Gebhard van Eichstattt is named Pope Victor II

1204- Crusaders occupy Constantinople

1241- The Mongols defeat the Hungarian king, King Béla IV at the battle of Theiss

1250- Egypt defeats the Seventh crusade, and Louis IX of France is captured. Under the support of Pope Innocent IV, King Louis IX invaded Egypt, with the intention to end the Egyptian and Syrian reign and take back the Holy Land (Jerusalem) for themselves. After defeating the Egyptian port of Damietta, Louis IX decided to march to Cairo, where they launched a surprise attack. The Egyptian forces retreated to the town of Al Mansurah, where they organised in the city. They then flung open the city gates, and the crusaders, expecting the city to be deserted, came in, only to find themselves in a tricky position. They had been ambushed. In the battle that followed, only five knights of the Templar survived, but Louis IX did survive. They crusaders retreated outside the city walls where they set up camp. Soon later, King Louis IX surrendered to an eunuch who promised that there would be no death for him or the nobles, if he surrendered. He was kept in the Royal Chancellor’s house, which was being used as a prison. For more information go here–>   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fariskur (Image Left)




Upon hearing of his capture, France offered a lump sum of 400,000 dinars. Louis was released upon the promise that he would not enter Egypt again. He left Egypt on the 8th of May that year.

1346- German emperor, Louis of Bavaria is made envoy by Pope Clemens VI

1367- England and Castille defeat France and Aragon. You may remember it was the death-day of Joanna of Castille yesterday, but she came into history much later, in the 1500’s

1668- John Dryden, then at the age of 36, is appointed the first poet laureate by Charles II. William Wordsworth would later also becomes a poet laureate

1741- The Royal Military Academy forms in Greenwich, England

1742- George Frederic Handel’s oratorio, Messiah, is performed for the first time in Dublin’s New Music Hall

1796- The first elephant arrives in the US, which came from India

1796-Napoleon defeats the Austrians at the battle at Millesimo

1849- the Hungarian Republic is proclaimed

1860- The first Pony Express (American mail system) arrives in California (Image Right)

1868- The British and Indian troops end the Abyssinian war by capturing Magdala. After the capture of Magdala, the Ethiopian Emperor commits suicide

1869- George Westinghouse patents the first power steam brake

1902- Department Store Founder, James Cash Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer Wyoming

1904- Hereros chase away the German army at the Battle at Oviumbio, Africa

1912- The Royal Flying Corps (later Royal Air Force) forms

1926- Cyclists without the bicycle-tax-stamp are rounded up in Amsterdam

1944- Diplomatic relations between the USSR and New Zealand are formed

1954- Robert Oppenheimer, the father of the Atomic Bomb, is accused of being a communist

1959- Vatican edicts bans Roman Catholics voting for communists

1965- The Beatles release ‘Help’

BIRTHS

1519- Catherine de Medici, Italian born Queen consort to Henry II, King of France (Image Left)

1547- Elisabeth of Volais, the daughter of Henry II (and Catherine de Medici)

1570- Guy Fawkes , an English Catholic Conspirator. I will be posting more about him, his life, and his plan for Parliament House, later this week

1573- Christina of Holstein-Gottorp and Queen consort of Sweden

1584- Albert VI of Bavaria

1732- Frederick North, British Prime Minister from 1770 to 1782

1743- Thomas Jefferson, the 3rd President of America from 1801 to 1809

1747- Louis Phillip II, Duke of Orleans

1756- Louis H J Conde, French Prince

1762- Johanna C Wattier-Ziesenis, Dutch actress, who played the role of Lady Macbeth

1771- Adam FJA van der Duyn, Dutch Governor in South Holland

1852- F J Woolworth, American businessman

1930- Justice Harman

DIVORCES


1992- Nelson Madela announces he will seek divorce from Winnie. They then went on to split in 1996

DEATHS

1093- Prince Vsevolod I of Keiv. Keiv is the Capital of Ukraine (Image Right)

1635- Prince of Lebanon, Fakhr-al-Din II